Title Database

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These files contain data relating to install/usage/management of installed 3DS titles. The database files are located at:

  • nand/dbs
  • sdmc/Nintendo 3DS/<ID0>/<ID1>/dbs

ID0 is the first 0x10-bytes from a SHA256 hash. The installation of SD Card titles was introduced in the 2.0.0-2 update and the SD dbs files are encrypted by the general SD filesystem encryption rule. These files are DIFF containers. These DIFF files do not use external IVFC level 4, so all database data is duplicated in the container. In this page only the inner content of the container is described.

These files are only created on SD (via AM) if they don't exist when the eShop application is starting up, during network init etc (prior to showing the "system update required" dialog).

These files are stored under this directory:

Stored on SD card Stored in CTR-NAND Filename CTR-9DB0 ID Description
No Yes ticket.db 0x0 This contains the installed tickets (NAND and SD).
No Yes certs.db 0x1 This contains the certificate chain used to verify TMDs and other certificates.
Yes Yes title.db 0x2 Title database, this contains entries for all installed titles (TWL & CTR) on the 3DS (Each database is responsible for titles installed on its medium).
Yes Yes import.db 0x3 This is an Import Database, it contains entries for titles (or versions of titles) not yet installed, ready for transferring to the title.db. (Automatic Update uses this, so completing the update takes seconds.)
No Yes tmp_t.db 0x4 This is the temporary Title database containing one entry for the currently installed Download Play Child.
No Yes tmp_i.db 0x5 Similar to import.db, except it's used in conjunction with tmp_t.db, for installing Download Play Children.

The inner content of the container consists of a pre-header with size of 0x80 identifying the Database Type, followed by a BDRI container. The offsets in the BDRI header are usually relative to the offset to the start of the BDRI header (0x80 in the file)

Pre Header[edit]

Start Length Description
0x00 8 Database Type "Magic" (see below)
0x08 0x78 Reserved

For ticket.db different pre header is used:

Start Length Description
0x00 4 Database Type "Magic" (see below)
0x04 0x04 Unknown (always 0x00000001 ?)
0x08 0x04 Unknown
0x0C 0x04 Unknown (0x30 smaller than previous one)

Database Magic[edit]

Database Type Magic
CTR-NAND ticket.db TICK
SD Card import.db TEMPTDB
SD Card title.db TEMPTDB


This is a variant of FAT filesystem. It consists one "root" directory and multiple "files". Each "file" is one title info entry described below.

Title Info Entry[edit]

An entry contains information taken from both the application NCCH file(s) and TMD.

Start Length Description
0x0 8 Title Size
0x8 4 Title Type(usually 0x40)
0xC 4 Title Version
0x10 4 Flags_0
0x14 4 TMD Content ID
0x18 4 CMD Content ID
0x1c 4 Flags_1
0x20 4 ExtdataID low (zero if title doesn't use Extdata)
0x24 4 Reserved
0x28 8 Flags_2
0x30 0x10 Product Code
0x40 0x10 Reserved
0x50 0x4 Unknown
0x54 0x2c Reserved

For ticket.db title info, there is a header indicates ticket count (as a Title ID can have more than one ticket installed). Then each entry contains the size, followed by the actual ticket data.

Start Length Description
0x0 4 Amount of tickets X
0x4 X * (size of tickets + 4) Ticket entries
Ticket entry
Start Length Description
0x0 4 Ticket data size X (often 0x350 but some DLC tickets may be larger)
0x4 X Ticket data


Index Description
0 Electronic Manual
1 ?
2 ?
3 ?


Index Description
0 SD Save Data
1 ?
2 ?
3 ?


Index Description
0 DSiWare Related (Visibility on Home Menu/Export Flag?)
1 ?
2 ?
3 ?
4 Found with DSiWare Titles and titles with an 'Application' Title ID
5 DSiWare Related (Visibility on Home Menu/Export Flag?)
6 ?
7 ?


It is important to note the database doesn't contain a hash of the .cmd. So if a user has more than one valid set of application data for a given .cmd Content ID they can be manually interchanged without issue. Though renaming a .cmd file to match the Content ID which the title.db is expecting will result in an error, as the CTR for the per-console encryption layer changes depending on the file path, and the MAC of the .cmd is probably generated with the .cmd Content ID in mind.

These NAND/SD /dbs images seem to be loaded by the ARM9 while NATIVE_FIRM is booting.

Removing ticket.db from a New-3DS with signature checks disabled will not result in an unbootable system, however all icons except Slot-1 will disappear from Home. Applets can however still be used. Recovery can be accomplished via hardmod or arm9loaderhax plus a known good backup of the file (or the whole partition or disk); Gamecard exploits were not tested, and Browserhax did not work.